Titania X3D Editor

Bring Colours to Your Life.

Titania v4.6.10

Bring Colours to Your Life.

X3D Reference

Transforming Shapes


  • By default, all shapes are built at the center of the world
  • A Transform enables you to
    • Position shapes
    • Rotate shapes
    • Scale shapes

Using coordinate systems

  • A X3D file builds components for a world
  • A file's world components are built in the file's world coordinate system
  • By default, all shapes are built at the origin of the world coordinate system

Transforming a coordinate system

A transform creates a coordinate system that is

  • Positioned
  • Rotated
  • Scaled

relative to a parent coordinate system

Shapes built in the new coordinate system are positioned, rotated, and scaled along with it

Syntax: Transform

The Transform group node creates a group with its own coordinate system

  • translation - position
  • rotation - orientation
  • scale - size
  • children - shapes to build

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding

Including children

The children field includes a list of one or more nodes

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding


Translation positions a coordinate system in X, Y, and Z.

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding


Rotation orients a coordinate system about a rotation axis by a rotation angle

  • Angles are measured in radians
  • radians = degrees / 180.0 * 3.1415927

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding

Specifying rotation axes

  • A rotation axis defines a pole to rotate around
  • Like the Earth's North-South pole

Typical rotations are about the X, Y, or Z axes:

Rotate about Axis
X-Axis 1.0 0.0 0.0
Y-Axis 0.0 1.0 0.0
Z-Axis 0.0 0.0 1.0

Using the Right-Hand Rule

Positive rotations are counter-clockwise

To help remember positive and negative rotation directions:

  • Open your hand
  • Stick out your thumb
  • Aim your thumb in an axis positive direction
  • Curl your fingers around the axis
  • The curl direction is a positive rotation


Scale grows or shrinks a coordinate system by a scaling factor in X, Y, and Z.

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding

Scaling, rotating, and translating

Scale, Rotate, and Translate a coordinate system, one after the other.

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding

Read operations bottom-up:

  • The children are scaled, rotated, then translated
  • Order is fixed, independent of field order

A sample transform group

XML Encoding

Classic Encoding


  • All shapes are built in a coordinate system
  • The Transform node creates a new coordinate system relative to its parent
  • Transform node fields do
    • translation
    • rotation
    • scale

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